In heavy-ion collisions, momentum-dependent pair correlations can be characterized by a principal component analysis (PCA), in which subleading modes are expected to reveal new information on flow fluctuations. However, we find that, as currently measured, these modes can be dominated by multiplicity fluctuations, which serve as an unwanted background. Here, we propose new PCA observables that are robust against multiplicity fluctuations and isolate novel sources of flow fluctuations, thus being suited to provide fresh insight into the initial stages of the system at small length scales.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics