Measuring mechanical behavior of steel during solidification: Modeling the SSCC test

Matthew Rowan, Brian G. Thomas, Robert Pierer, Christian Bernhard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The submerged split chill contraction (SSCC) test can measure forces in a solidifying steel shell under controlled conditions that match those of commercial casting processes. A computational model of this test is developed and applied to increase understanding of the thermal-mechanical behavior during the initial solidification of steel. Determining the stress profile is difficult because of the complicated geometry of the experimental apparatus and the nonuniform temperature and strength across the shell. The two-dimensional axisymmetric elastic-viscoplastic finite-element model of the SSCC test features different mechanical properties and constitutive equations for delta-ferrite and austenite that are functions of both the temperature and the strain rate. The model successfully matches measurements of (1) temperature history, (2) shell thickness, (3) solidification force, and (4) failure location. In addition, the model reveals the stress and strain profiles through the shell and explains what the experiment is actually measuring. In addition to the strength of the shell, the measured force is governed by the strength of the junction between the upper and lower test pieces and depends on friction at the shell-cylinder interface. The SSCC test and the validated model together are a powerful analysis tool for mechanical behavior, hot tear crack formation, and other phenomena in solidification processes such as continuous casting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)837-851
Number of pages15
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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