Measures of Racial-Ethnic-Cultural (REC) Belonging: A Systematic Review of the Literature

B. Andi Lee, Amir H. Maghsoodi, Nidia Ruedas-Gracia, Chelsea D. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


A component of racial-ethnic-cultural (REC) identity, a sense of belonging to one’s REC group (REC Belonging; REC-B) has important implications for both individual psychological functioning and intra- and intergroup dynamics. Despite the substantial body of research on REC identity, a comprehensive and consensus definition and measurement of REC-B remains elusive. In this paper, we report the results of a systematic review and evaluation of 25 scales that attempt to define and measure REC-B or facets of it. Based on a review of the foundational theoretical and empirical literature on REC-B, we also propose a comprehensive definition of REC-B. Our study offers suggestions for future research in the area of understanding and assessing REC belongingness. This growing area of study has implications for promoting healing and well-being in BIPOC communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-192
Number of pages23
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023


  • Sense of belonging
  • identity development
  • racial-ethnic-cultural identity
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


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