Measurement of intraocular pressure using rebound tonometry in anesthetized peruvian fur seals (arctocephalus australis) from punta San Juan, Peru

Lauren P. Kane, Michael J. Adkesson, Julie D. Sheldon, Matthew C. Allender, Gwen Jankowski, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ocular disease in pinnipeds under human care is well described, and intraocular pressure (IOP) can be impacted by a variety of ophthalmic conditions. Species-specific reference parameters from clinically normal animals are instrumental for understanding how ophthalmic diseases may impact ocular pressures. IOP measurements were obtained using rebound tonometry from free-ranging Peruvian fur seals (Arctocephalus australis unnamed subspecies) at Punta San Juan, Peru, over a 6-yr period (2010-2016). Retrospective data obtained from 108 (81 adults and 27 neonates comprising 69 females and 39 males) anesthetized fur seals with normal anterior segment ophthalmic examinations was included in the analysis. Differences in IOP from each eye were compared to categorical variables (age, year, sex, restraint) using an independent-samples t test. All univariate results with a significance of P < 0.05 were included in multivariate analysis. Of the 13 general linear models evaluated, the top two for both the right and the left eye included age class when all variables were evaluated simultaneously. Neonates had significantly lower IOP values than adults in both the right eye (17.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.0-21.1 mm Hg compared to 33.5 mm Hg; 95% CI: 31.0-36.1 mm Hg, respectively) and the left eye (18.4 mm Hg; 95% CI: 14.4-22.5 mm Hg compared to 32.3 mm Hg; 95% CI: 29.3-35.3 mm Hg, respectively). Anesthesia method was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). This is the first report of normal IOP measurements for any fur seal species. Described data can be used to improve diagnosis and management of ocular alterations in pinnipeds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1217-1223
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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