Measurement and prediction of lubrication, powder consumption, and oscillation mark profiles in ultra-low carbon steel slabs

Ho Jung Shin, Seon Hyo Kim, Brian G. Thomas, Go Gi Lee, Je Min Park, Joydeep Sengupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The flow of melted mold powder into the interfacial gap between the strand and the mold wall is important for productivity and quality in continuous cast slabs. Some of the mold slag (flux) consumption provides true lubrication, while much of the rest is trapped in the oscillation marks on the slab surface. This work presents measurements of powder consumption from extensive careful plant trials on ultra-low carbon steels, and a new, simple, semi-empirical model to predict slag consumption. The model predicts "lubrication consumption" by deducting the slag carried in the oscillation marks from the measured total. The oscillation mark shape is estimated from a theoretical analysis of equilibrium meniscus shape, which is based on metallographic analysis of many hook and oscillation mark shapes. The model demonstrates that the fraction consumed in the oscillation marks decreases with increasing casting speed, because the oscillation mark depth depends more on casting speed than on mold oscillation conditions. The model is validated by successful prediction of known trends of oscillation mark depth and mold powder consumption with changing various operation parameters. The model provides new insight into mold lubrication phenomena, which is important for extending casting operation to higher speeds and new lubrication regimes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1635-1644
Number of pages10
JournalISIJ International
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Casting speed
  • Continuous casting
  • Flux
  • Frequency
  • Lubrication
  • Meniscus
  • Models
  • Modification ratio
  • Mold oscillation
  • Mold powder
  • Negative strip time
  • Oscillation marks
  • Plant experiments
  • Positive strip time
  • Slag
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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