This chapter provides an insight into the better confinement for electrons and a better match of the valence and conduction band densities of GaAs to a higher operating temperature, higher efficiency, and higher output power to grow 1.3-1.6 μm active quantum. Dilute nitrides or dilute nitride-arsenides are two very different (III-V) semiconductors that differ not only in their electronic properties, but also in their range of miscibility gap in the alloys. The chapter also discusses different crystal structure for the endpoint alloys (zinc blend for in GaAs or GaAsSb versus wurtzite for InGaN) and the methods by which they must be grown. The major challenge for GaInNAs(Sb) is to understand the differences of the dilute nitrides compared to other III-V alloys and to produce low threshold lasers at any desired wavelength between 1.3 and 1.6 μm. The most recent results incorporating Sb to form a GaInNAsSb appear to overcome many of the prior problems with phase segregation.
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