Maximally rotating supermassive stars at the onset of collapse: The perturbative effects of gas pressure, magnetic fields, dark matter, and dark energy

Satya P. Butler, Alicia R. Lima, Thomas W. Baumgarte, Stuart L. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The discovery of quasars at increasingly large cosmological redshifts may favour 'direct collapse' as the most promising evolutionary route to the formation of supermassive black holes. In this scenario, supermassive black holes form when their progenitors - supermassive stars - become unstable to gravitational collapse. For uniformly rotating stars supported by pure radiation pressure and spinning at the mass-shedding limit, the critical configuration at the onset of collapse is characterized by universal values of the dimensionless spin and radius parameters J/M2 and R/M, independent of mass M.We consider perturbative effects of gas pressure, magnetic fields, dark matter, and dark energy on these parameters, and thereby determine the domain of validity of this universality. We obtain leading-order corrections for the critical parameters and establish their scaling with the relevant physical parameters. We compare two different approaches to approximate the effects of gas pressure, which plays the most important role, find identical results for the above dimensionless parameters, and also find good agreement with recent numerical results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3694-3710
Number of pages17
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume477
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

Keywords

  • Black hole physics
  • Equation of state
  • Stars: Population III

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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