Materials and Devices for On-Chip and Off-Chip Peltier Cooling: A Review

Lakshmi Amulya Nimmagadda, Rifat Mahmud, Sanjiv Sinha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The thermoelectric effect forms the basis of Peltier cooling that has attracted interest for solid-state refrigeration for more than a century. The dearth of materials level efficiency in converting between heat and electricity has limited widespread applications. With renewed focus on energy technologies in the past three decades, the thermoelectric effect has been intensely explored in new materials using state-of-the-art advances in materials fabrication, characterization techniques, and theory. This article aims to navigate the complex landscape of these studies to identify credible advances, pinpoint continuing problems, and lay out future prospects for both research and applications, with emphasis on electronics cooling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9475537
Pages (from-to)1267-1281
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Electronic
  • optoelectronic
  • Peltier cooling
  • superlattice
  • thermoelectric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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