Material-based deployment enhances efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells

Eduardo A. Silva, Eun Suk Kim, Joon Kong Hyun, David J. Mooney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cell-based therapies are attractive for revascularizing and regenerating tissues and organs, but clinical trials of endothelial progenitor cell transplantation have not resulted in consistent benefit. We propose a different approach in which a material delivery system is used to create a depot of vascular progenitor cells in vivo that exit over time to repopulate the damaged tissue and participate in regeneration of a vascular network. Microenvironmental conditions sufficient to maintain the viability and outward migration of outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) have been delineated, and a material incorporating these signals improved engraftment of transplanted cells in ischemic murine hindlimb musculature, and increased blood vessel densities from 260 to 670 vessels per mm2, compared with direct cell injection. Further, material deployment dramatically improved the efficacy of these cells in salvaging ischemic murine limbs, whereas bolus OEC delivery was ineffective in preventing toe necrosis and foot loss. Finally, material deployment of a combination of OECs with another cell population commonly isolated from peripheral or cord blood, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) returned perfusion to normal levels in 40 days, and prevented toe and foot necrosis. Direct injection of an EPC/OEC combination was minimally effective in improving limb perfusion, and untreated limbs underwent autoamputation in 3 days. These results demonstrate that vascular progenitor cell utility is highly dependent on the mode of delivery, and suggest that one can create new vascular beds for a variety of applications with this material-controlled deployment of cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14347-14352
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number38
StatePublished - Sep 23 2008


  • Biomaterial
  • Cell therapy
  • Ischemic diseases
  • Neovascularization
  • Regenerative medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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