Mapping thixo-elasto-visco-plastic behavior

Randy H. Ewoldt, Gareth H. McKinley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A century ago, and more than a decade before the term rheology was formally coined, Bingham introduced the concept of plastic flow above a critical stress to describe steady flow curves observed in English china clay dispersions. However, in many complex fluids and soft solids, the manifestation of a yield stress is also accompanied by other complex rheological phenomena such as thixotropy and viscoelastic transient responses, both above and below the critical stress. In this perspective article, we discuss efforts to map out the different limiting forms of the general rheological response of such materials by considering higher dimensional extensions of the familiar Pipkin map. Based on transient and nonlinear concepts, the maps first help organize the conditions of canonical flow protocols. These conditions can then be normalized with relevant material properties to form dimensionless groups that define a 3D state space to represent the spectrum of thixotropic elastoviscoplastic (TEVP) material responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-210
Number of pages16
JournalRheologica Acta
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • Bingham
  • Pipkin
  • Plastic fluids
  • Rheometry
  • Thixotropy
  • Viscoelasticity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • General Materials Science


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