Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 regulate WBC trafficking and are engaged by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 during infection. We combine a selection of human CXCR4 and CCR5 libraries comprising nearly all of ∼7000 single amino acid substitutions with deep sequencing to define sequence-activity landscapes for surface expression and ligand interactions. After consideration of sequence constraints for surface expression, known interaction sites with HIV-1–blocking Abs were appropriately identified as conserved residues following library sorting for Ab binding, validating the use of deep mutational scanning to map functional interaction sites in G protein–coupled receptors. Chemokine CXCL12 was found to interact with residues extending asymmetrically into the CXCR4 ligand-binding cavity, similar to the binding surface of CXCR4 recognized by an antagonistic viral chemokine previously observed crystallographically. CXCR4 mutations distal from the chemokine binding site were identified that enhance chemokine recognition. This included disruptive mutations in the G protein–coupling site that diminished calcium mobilization, as well as conservative mutations to a membrane-exposed site (CXCR4 residues H79 2.45 and W161 4.50 ) that increased ligand binding without loss of signaling. Compared with CXCR4–CXCL12 interactions, CCR5 residues conserved for gp120 (HIV-1 BaL strain) interactions map to a more expansive surface, mimicking how the cognate chemokine CCL5 makes contacts across the entire CCR5 binding cavity. Acidic substitutions in the CCR5 N terminus and extracellular loops enhanced gp120 binding. This study demonstrates how comprehensive mutational scanning can define functional interaction sites on receptors, and novel mutations that enhance receptor activities can be found simultaneously. The Journal of Immunology, 2018, 200: 3825–3839.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy