MANGO: An Optical Network to Study the Dynamics of the Earth's Upper Atmosphere

A. N. Bhatt, B. J. Harding, J. J. Makela, L. Navarro, L. J. Lamarche, T. Valentic, E. A. Kendall, P. Venkatraman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Mid-latitude All-sky-imaging Network for Geophysical Observations (MANGO) employs a combination of two powerful optical techniques used to observe the dynamics of Earth's upper atmosphere: wide-field imaging and high-resolution spectral interferometry. Both techniques observe the naturally occurring airglow emissions produced in the upper atmosphere at 630.0- and 557.7-nm wavelengths. Instruments are deployed to sites across the continental United States, providing the capability to make measurements spanning mid to sub-auroral latitudes. The current instrument suite in MANGO has six all-sky imagers (ASIs) observing the 630.0-nm emission (integrated between ∼200 and 400 km altitude), six ASIs observing the 557.7-nm emission (integrated between ∼90 and 100 km altitude), and four Fabry-Perot interferometers measuring neutral winds and temperature at these wavelengths. The deployment of additional imagers is planned. The network makes unprecedented observations of the nighttime thermosphere-ionosphere dynamics with the expanded field-of-view provided by the distributed network of instruments. This paper describes the network, the instruments, the data products, and first results from this effort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2023JA031589
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • instrument network
  • ionosphere
  • optical imaging
  • thermosphere
  • upper atmosphere
  • waves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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