Make Web3.0 Connected

Zhuotao Liu, Yangxi Xiang, Jian Shi, Peng Gao, Haoyu Wang, Xusheng Xiao, Bihan Wen, Qi Li, Yih Chun Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Web3.0, often cited to drastically shape our lives, is ubiquitous. However, few literatures have discussed the crucial differentiators that separate Web3.0 from the era we are currently living in. Via a thorough analysis of the recent blockchain infrastructure evolution, we capture a key invariant featuring the evolution, based on which we provide the first academic definition for Web3.0. Our definition is not the only way of understanding Web3.0, yet, it captures the fundamental and defining trait of Web3.0, and meanwhile it is has two desirable properties. Under this definition, we articulate three key infrastructural enablers for Web3.0: individual blockchains, federated or centralized platforms capable of publishing verifiable states, and an interoperability platform to hyperconnect those state publishers. While innovations in all categories are necessary to fully enable Web3.0, in this paper, we present a design for the third enabler, namely HyperService, that delivers interoperability and programmability across heterogeneous blockchains and state publishers. HyperService is powered by two innovative designs: a developer-facing programming framework that allows developers to build cross-chain applications in a unified programming model; and a secure blockchain-facing cryptography protocol that provably realizes those applications on blockchains. We implement a prototype of HyperService in 62,000 lines of code to demonstrate its practicality, usability, and scalability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2965-2981
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Blockchain
  • Interoperability
  • Programming
  • Protocols
  • Smart contracts
  • Stakeholders
  • Technological innovation
  • Web3.0
  • smart contract
  • blockchain interoperability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • General Computer Science


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