Background: Spenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) in dogs treated with surgery alone is associated with short survival times, and the addition of doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy only modestly improves outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of toceranib administration on progression free survival in dogs with stage I or II HSA following splenectomy and single agent DOX chemotherapy. We hypothesized that dogs with splenic HSA treated with adjuvant DOX followed by toceranib would have prolonged disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival time (OS) when compared to historical dogs treated with DOX-based chemotherapy alone. Results: Dogs with stage I or II splenic HSA were administered 5 cycles of single-agent DOX every 2 weeks beginning within 14 days of splenectomy. Dogs were restaged 2 weeks after completing DOX, and those without evidence of metastatic disease began toceranib therapy at 3.25 mg/kg every other day. Forty-three dogs were enrolled in this clinical trial. Seven dogs had evidence of metastatic disease either before or at re-staging, and an additional 3 dogs were found to have metastatic disease within 1 week of toceranib administration. Therefore 31 dogs went on to receive toceranib following completion of doxorubicin treatment. Twenty-five dogs that received toceranib developed metastatic disease. The median disease free interval for all dogs enrolled in this study (n = 43) was 138 days, and the median disease free interval for those dogs that went on to receive toceranib (n = 31) was 161 days. The median survival time for all dogs enrolled in this study was 169 days, and the median survival time for those dogs that went on to receive toceranib was 172 days. Conclusions: The use of toceranib following DOX chemotherapy does not improve either disease free interval or overall survival in dogs with stage I or II HSA.
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