Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children

Sasha M. Barnett, Naiman A. Khan, Anne M. Walk, Lauren B. Raine, Christopher Moulton, Neal J. Cohen, Arthur F. Kramer, Billy R. Hammond, Lisa Renzi-Hammond, Charles H. Hillman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Macular pigment optical density (MPOD)–a non-invasive indicator of retinal xanthophylls and correlate of brain lutein–has been associated with superior cognitive function among adult populations. Given that lutein accumulation in the brain occurs in early life, it is possible that the cognitive implications of greater MPOD may be evident in childhood. Methods: Participants aged 8–9 years (n = 56) completed MPOD measurements via heterochromatic flicker photometry. Academic performance was assessed using the Kaufman Test of Academic and Educational Achievement II (KTEA). Habitual dietary intake of L and Z was measured among a subsample of participants (n = 35) using averaged 3-day food records. Stepwise hierarchical regression models were developed to determine the relationship between MPOD and academic achievement tests, following the adjustment of key covariates including sex, aerobic fitness, body composition, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Results: The regression analyses revealed that MPOD improved the model, beyond the covariates, for overall academic achievement (ΔR2 = 0.10, P < 0.01), mathematics (ΔR2 = 0.07, P = 0.02), and written language composite standard scores (ΔR2 = 0.15, P < 0.01). Discussion: This is the first study to demonstrate that retinal L and Z, measured as MPOD, is positively related to academic achievement in children, even after accounting for the robust effects of IQ and other demographic factors. These findings extend the positive associations observed between MPOD and cognitive abilities to a pediatric population. Trail registration: The Fitness Improves Thinking in Kids 2 (FITKids2) trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01619826.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)632-640
Number of pages9
JournalNutritional Neuroscience
Volume21
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 21 2018

Fingerprint

Intelligence
Xanthophylls
Photometry
Social Adjustment
Lutein
Educational Status
Aptitude
Mathematics
Brain
Macular Pigment
Body Composition
Cognition
Population
Language
Regression Analysis
Demography
Pediatrics
Food
Thinking

Keywords

  • Academic performance
  • Lutein
  • Macular pigment optical density
  • Preadolescent children
  • Zeaxanthin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children. / Barnett, Sasha M.; Khan, Naiman A.; Walk, Anne M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Moulton, Christopher; Cohen, Neal J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hammond, Billy R.; Renzi-Hammond, Lisa; Hillman, Charles H.

In: Nutritional Neuroscience, Vol. 21, No. 9, 21.10.2018, p. 632-640.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Barnett, SM, Khan, NA, Walk, AM, Raine, LB, Moulton, C, Cohen, NJ, Kramer, AF, Hammond, BR, Renzi-Hammond, L & Hillman, CH 2018, 'Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children', Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 632-640. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2017.1329976
Barnett, Sasha M. ; Khan, Naiman A. ; Walk, Anne M. ; Raine, Lauren B. ; Moulton, Christopher ; Cohen, Neal J. ; Kramer, Arthur F. ; Hammond, Billy R. ; Renzi-Hammond, Lisa ; Hillman, Charles H. / Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children. In: Nutritional Neuroscience. 2018 ; Vol. 21, No. 9. pp. 632-640.
@article{77306f45482544a4bdcac67c0cafd354,
title = "Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children",
abstract = "Objective: Macular pigment optical density (MPOD)–a non-invasive indicator of retinal xanthophylls and correlate of brain lutein–has been associated with superior cognitive function among adult populations. Given that lutein accumulation in the brain occurs in early life, it is possible that the cognitive implications of greater MPOD may be evident in childhood. Methods: Participants aged 8–9 years (n = 56) completed MPOD measurements via heterochromatic flicker photometry. Academic performance was assessed using the Kaufman Test of Academic and Educational Achievement II (KTEA). Habitual dietary intake of L and Z was measured among a subsample of participants (n = 35) using averaged 3-day food records. Stepwise hierarchical regression models were developed to determine the relationship between MPOD and academic achievement tests, following the adjustment of key covariates including sex, aerobic fitness, body composition, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Results: The regression analyses revealed that MPOD improved the model, beyond the covariates, for overall academic achievement (ΔR2 = 0.10, P < 0.01), mathematics (ΔR2 = 0.07, P = 0.02), and written language composite standard scores (ΔR2 = 0.15, P < 0.01). Discussion: This is the first study to demonstrate that retinal L and Z, measured as MPOD, is positively related to academic achievement in children, even after accounting for the robust effects of IQ and other demographic factors. These findings extend the positive associations observed between MPOD and cognitive abilities to a pediatric population. Trail registration: The Fitness Improves Thinking in Kids 2 (FITKids2) trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01619826.",
keywords = "Academic performance, Lutein, Macular pigment optical density, Preadolescent children, Zeaxanthin",
author = "Barnett, {Sasha M.} and Khan, {Naiman A.} and Walk, {Anne M.} and Raine, {Lauren B.} and Christopher Moulton and Cohen, {Neal J.} and Kramer, {Arthur F.} and Hammond, {Billy R.} and Lisa Renzi-Hammond and Hillman, {Charles H.}",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1080/1028415X.2017.1329976",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "21",
pages = "632--640",
journal = "Nutritional Neuroscience",
issn = "1028-415X",
publisher = "Maney Publishing",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children

AU - Barnett, Sasha M.

AU - Khan, Naiman A.

AU - Walk, Anne M.

AU - Raine, Lauren B.

AU - Moulton, Christopher

AU - Cohen, Neal J.

AU - Kramer, Arthur F.

AU - Hammond, Billy R.

AU - Renzi-Hammond, Lisa

AU - Hillman, Charles H.

PY - 2018/10/21

Y1 - 2018/10/21

N2 - Objective: Macular pigment optical density (MPOD)–a non-invasive indicator of retinal xanthophylls and correlate of brain lutein–has been associated with superior cognitive function among adult populations. Given that lutein accumulation in the brain occurs in early life, it is possible that the cognitive implications of greater MPOD may be evident in childhood. Methods: Participants aged 8–9 years (n = 56) completed MPOD measurements via heterochromatic flicker photometry. Academic performance was assessed using the Kaufman Test of Academic and Educational Achievement II (KTEA). Habitual dietary intake of L and Z was measured among a subsample of participants (n = 35) using averaged 3-day food records. Stepwise hierarchical regression models were developed to determine the relationship between MPOD and academic achievement tests, following the adjustment of key covariates including sex, aerobic fitness, body composition, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Results: The regression analyses revealed that MPOD improved the model, beyond the covariates, for overall academic achievement (ΔR2 = 0.10, P < 0.01), mathematics (ΔR2 = 0.07, P = 0.02), and written language composite standard scores (ΔR2 = 0.15, P < 0.01). Discussion: This is the first study to demonstrate that retinal L and Z, measured as MPOD, is positively related to academic achievement in children, even after accounting for the robust effects of IQ and other demographic factors. These findings extend the positive associations observed between MPOD and cognitive abilities to a pediatric population. Trail registration: The Fitness Improves Thinking in Kids 2 (FITKids2) trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01619826.

AB - Objective: Macular pigment optical density (MPOD)–a non-invasive indicator of retinal xanthophylls and correlate of brain lutein–has been associated with superior cognitive function among adult populations. Given that lutein accumulation in the brain occurs in early life, it is possible that the cognitive implications of greater MPOD may be evident in childhood. Methods: Participants aged 8–9 years (n = 56) completed MPOD measurements via heterochromatic flicker photometry. Academic performance was assessed using the Kaufman Test of Academic and Educational Achievement II (KTEA). Habitual dietary intake of L and Z was measured among a subsample of participants (n = 35) using averaged 3-day food records. Stepwise hierarchical regression models were developed to determine the relationship between MPOD and academic achievement tests, following the adjustment of key covariates including sex, aerobic fitness, body composition, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Results: The regression analyses revealed that MPOD improved the model, beyond the covariates, for overall academic achievement (ΔR2 = 0.10, P < 0.01), mathematics (ΔR2 = 0.07, P = 0.02), and written language composite standard scores (ΔR2 = 0.15, P < 0.01). Discussion: This is the first study to demonstrate that retinal L and Z, measured as MPOD, is positively related to academic achievement in children, even after accounting for the robust effects of IQ and other demographic factors. These findings extend the positive associations observed between MPOD and cognitive abilities to a pediatric population. Trail registration: The Fitness Improves Thinking in Kids 2 (FITKids2) trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01619826.

KW - Academic performance

KW - Lutein

KW - Macular pigment optical density

KW - Preadolescent children

KW - Zeaxanthin

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85019580771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85019580771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1329976

DO - 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1329976

M3 - Article

C2 - 28535707

AN - SCOPUS:85019580771

VL - 21

SP - 632

EP - 640

JO - Nutritional Neuroscience

JF - Nutritional Neuroscience

SN - 1028-415X

IS - 9

ER -