Objectives To examine the associations of macular pigment carotenoids (lutein, meso-zeaxanthin, and zeaxanthin), aerobic fitness, and central adiposity with hippocampal-dependent relational memory in prepubescent children. Study design Children between 7 and 10 years of age (n = 40) completed a task designed to assess relational memory performance and participated in aerobic fitness, adiposity, and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) assessment. Aerobic fitness was assessed via a modified Balke treadmill protocol designed to measure maximal oxygen volume. Central adiposity was assessed via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. MPOD was measured psychophysically by the use of customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Statistical analyses included correlations and hierarchical linear regression. Results Aerobic fitness and MPOD were associated negatively with relational memory errors (P < .01), whereas central adiposity was associated positively with relational memory errors (P < .05). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that MPOD accounted for a significant amount of the variance in relational memory performance even after we accounted for aerobic fitness (β = −0.388, P = .007). Conclusions Even after we adjusted for aerobic fitness and central adiposity, factors known to relate to hippocampal-dependent memory, MPOD positively and significantly predicted hippocampal-dependent memory performance. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619826.
- health factors
- swap error
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health