Lyapunov-Based Real-Time and Iterative Adjustment of Deep Neural Networks

Runhan Sun, Max L. Greene, Duc M. Le, Zachary I. Bell, Girish Chowdhary, Warren E. Dixon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A real-time Deep Neural Network (DNN) adaptive control architecture is developed for general uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems to track a desired time-varying trajectory. A Lyapunov-based method is leveraged to develop adaptation laws for the output-layer weights of a DNN model in real-time while a data-driven supervised learning algorithm is used to update the inner-layer weights of the DNN. Specifically, the output-layer weights of the DNN are estimated using an unsupervised learning algorithm to provide responsiveness and guaranteed tracking performance with real-time feedback. The inner-layer weights of the DNN are trained with collected data sets to increase performance, and the adaptation laws are updated once a sufficient amount of data is collected. Building on the results in (Joshi and Chowdhary, 2019) and (Joshi et al., 2020), which focus on deep model reference adaptive control for linear systems with known drift dynamics and control effectiveness matrices, this letter considers general control-affine uncertain nonlinear systems. The real-time controller and adaptation laws enable the system to track a desired time-varying trajectory while compensating for the unknown drift dynamics and parameter uncertainties in the control effectiveness. A nonsmooth Lyapunov-based analysis is used to prove semi-global asymptotic tracking of the desired trajectory. Numerical simulation examples are included to validate the results, and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to train the weights of the DNN.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9337905
Pages (from-to)193-198
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Control Systems Letters
StatePublished - 2022


  • Adaptive control
  • Lyapunov-based analysis
  • deep neural networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Control and Optimization


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