Lubricant-infused surfaces (LISs) and slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) have shown remarkable success in repelling low-surface-tension fluids. The atomically smooth, defect-free slippery surface leads to reduced droplet pinning and omniphobicity. However, the presence of a lubricant introduces liquid-liquid interactions with the working fluid. The commonly utilized lubricants for LISs and SLIPSs, although immiscible with water, show various degrees of miscibility with organic polar and nonpolar working fluids. Here, we rigorously investigate the extent of miscibility by considering a wide range of liquid-vapor surface tensions (12-73 mN/m) and different categories of lubricants having a range of viscosities (5-2700 cSt). Using high-fidelity analytical chemistry techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, and two-dimensional gas chromatography, we quantify lubricant miscibility to parts per billion accuracy. Furthermore, we quantify lubricant concentrations in the collected condensate obtained from prolonged condensation experiments with ethanol and hexane to delineate mixing and shear-based lubricant drainage mechanisms and to predict the lifetime of LISs and SLIPSs. Our work not only elucidates the effect of lubricant properties on miscibility with various fluids but also develops guidelines for developing stable and robust LISs and SLIPSs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)