Low sooting combustion of narrow-angle wall-guided sprays in an HSDI diesel engine with retarded injection timings

Tiegang Fang, Chia Fon F. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An optically accessible single-cylinder high speed direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine was used to investigate the spray and combustion processes with narrow-angle wall-guided sprays. Influences of injection timings and injection pressure on combustion characteristics and emissions were studied. In-cylinder pressure was measured and used for heat release analysis. High-speed spray and combustion videos were captured. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. With significantly retarded post-top dead center (TDC) injections, smokeless combustion was achieved for wall-guided diesel spray. Premixed-combustion was observed from the heat release rates and the combustion images. Natural luminosity was found significantly lower for smokeless combustion case. However, NOx emissions were higher for the low sooting combustion cases. In addition, retarding injection timing lead to more complete combustion with more heat released from the same amount of fuel. Spray images revealed significant fuel impingement for all the conditions and the spray development was controlled and guided by the piston bowl curvature. NOx and natural luminosity trade-off trend was observed for these conditions. However, quite different from conventional diesel combustion, retarding post-TDC injection timing leads to lower natural luminosity and higher NOx emissions for narrow-angle wall-guided spray combustion. For the smokeless combustion case under moderate operating load, both homogeneous combustion and low-luminosity pool fires were observed during combustion process and the latter was due to fuel-piston impingement. The findings in this study could be used to solve the smoke issues associated with narrow-angle injection technique under high load conditions. With narrow-angle injectors, ignition could occur for significantly retarded post-TDC injections, which provides a unique mixing approach for diesel engines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1449-1456
Number of pages8
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2011


  • Diesel combustion
  • HCCI combustion
  • Mie-scattering
  • Natural luminosity
  • Wall-guided spray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Organic Chemistry


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