Low porosity, high areal-capacity Prussian blue analogue electrodes enhance salt removal and thermodynamic efficiency in symmetric Faradaic deionization with automated fluid control

Erik R. Reale, Lyle Regenwetter, Adreet Agrawal, Brian Dardón, Nicholas Dicola, Sathvik Sanagala, Kyle C. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) show great potential for low-energy Faradaic deionization (FDI) with reversible Na-ion capacity approaching 5 M in the solid-state. However, past continuous-flow demonstrations using PBAs in FDI were unable to desalinate brackish water to potable levels using single-pass architectures. Here, we show that recirculation of effluent from a symmetric cation intercalation desalination cell into brine/diluate reservoirs enables salt removal exceeding 80% at thermodynamic efficiency as high as 80% when cycled with 100 mM NaCl influent and when controlled by a low-volume, automated fluid circuit. This exceptional performance is achieved using a novel heated, alkaline wet phase inversion process that modulates colloidal forces to increase carbon black aggregation within electrode slurries to solidify crack-free, high areal-capacity PBA electrodes that are calendered to minimize cell impedance and electrode porosity. The results obtained demonstrate the need for co-design of auxiliary fluid-control systems together with electrode materials to advance FDI beyond brackish salinity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100116
JournalWater Research X
Volume13
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

Keywords

  • Colloids
  • Desalination
  • Faradaic deionization
  • Thermodynamic energy efficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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