Longitudinal Changes in Home Food Availability and Concurrent Associations with Food and Nutrient Intake Among Children at 24 to 48 Months

Jennifer M. Barton, Arden L. McMath, Stewart P. Montgomery, Sharon M. Donovan, Barbara H. Fiese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To describe changes in home food availability during early childhood, including modified, developmentally sensitive obesogenic scores, and to determine whether home food availability is associated with food and nutrient intakes of children concurrently, over time. Design: Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids 2 longitudinal, birth cohort to achieve the study objectives. Home food availability was assessed with the Home Food Inventory (HFI) and included 15 food groups (e.g., fruit, vegetables) and 3 obesogenic scores (1 original and 2 modified). Food and nutrient intakes were measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire and included 27 food groups and 18 nutrients (e.g., vitamins A and C, protein). HFI and FFQ were completed by trained researchers or mothers, respectively, at 24, 36, and 48 months. Repeated measures ANOVAs and Spearman correlations were used to achieve the study objectives. Setting: Central Illinois, United States. Participants: 468 children at 24, 36 and 48 months of age. Results: Availability of less nutritious foods and obesogenic foods and beverages increased as children aged, and availability of both nutritious and less nutritious foods were associated with child food and nutrient intake. The 3 obesogenic scores demonstrated similar, positive associations with the intake of energy, saturated fat, added sugars, and kilocalories from sweets. Conclusion: These findings offer novel insight into changes in home food availability and associations with food and nutrient intake during early childhood. Additional attention is needed examining antecedents (e.g., built environments, purchasing behaviors) and consequences (e.g., child diet quality, weight) of home food availability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere62
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2 2024


  • early childhood
  • food frequency questionnaire
  • home food availability
  • STRONG Kids 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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