Long-term fertilization effects on rice productivity and nutrient efficiency in Korean paddy

Chang Hoon Lee, Ui Gum Kang, Ki Do Park, Do Kyoung Lee, Pil Joo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Long-term fertilization tests evaluated rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in relation to application of nitrogen (N)-phosphorus (P)-potassium (K) (120-34.9-66.7 kg ha- 1, respectively) during 1967-1972 and N-P-K (150-43.7-83.3 kg ha- 1, respectively) during 1973-2000. The comparison treatments (NP, PK, and NK) and the control (not fertilized) were selected for calculating nutrient efficiency. Rice grain yield increased at a 17.78 kg ha- 1 yr- 1 in the control, mainly due to development of improved cultivars. Phosphorus management was found to be important for indigenous fertility and rice productivity in this paddy soil. Yield increased significantly with P fertilization. Without N fertilization (PK), rice productivity increased 56.85 kg ha- 1 yr- 1 from 62% of NPK at the initial stage to 74% after passing 34 years, which might be affected by increasing biological N fixation with P accumulation in soil. In NK treatment, rice yield increased at a relatively low rate (37.82 kg hr- 1 yr- 1) from the same rice productivity with that of NPK in 1967 to 91% after 34 years. In comparison, yield increased at a high rate (62.82 kg hr- 1 yr- 1) without K fertilization (NP) from ca. 90% of NPK and might exceed the yield of NPK after 64 years of long-term fertilization. Therefore, K fertilization level might be readjusted after long-term fertilizing in paddy soil.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1496-1506
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Plant Nutrition
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Long-term fertilization
  • Nutrient efficiency
  • Nutrient uptake
  • Paddy soil
  • Rice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science


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