Various formal and informal literacy assessment measures are described and evaluated. Specifically, the extent to which such measures reflect or distort the literacy performance of students from diverse linguistic, cultural, and/or economic background is noted. Although a flexible approach to assessment--giving teachers the freedom to situate or contextualize assessment--is supported, teachers in particular and educators in general are warned that they need to increase their knowledge base about language, culture, and literacy. Specific recommendations for changes in assessment practices and policies are delineated, and a list of criteria is presented for educators to use in creating and evaluating literacy assessment measures.
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