Lipophilic impurities, not phenolsulfonphthalein, account for the estrogenic activity in commercial preparations of phenol red

Rajeshwar D. Bindal, Kathryn E. Carlson, Benita S. Katzenellenbogen, John A. Katzenellenbogen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Previously, we found that Phenol Red, a pH indicator dye commonly used in tissue culture media, had weak estrogenic activity, demonstrable by competitive binding to the estrogen receptor, stimulation of the growth rate of human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, and elevation of progesterone receptor levels in these cells. We have now examined in more detail the source of this estrogenic activity, present in commercially available preparations of Phenol Red. By high performance liquid chromatography and solvent partitioning, we find that the receptor binding and growth promoting activity does not correspond to the indicator dye itself (phenolsulfonphthalein), but rather to more lipophilic impurities present in these preparations. There are numerous such impurities, many of which show some competitive binding activity, but the major receptor binding activity is accounted for by a single impurity component. Commercial preparations of Phenol Red can be purified by ether extraction of the sodium salt, whereby 95-99% of the lipophilic estrogenic impurities are removed, and the growth stimulating activity towards MCF-7 cells is reduced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-293
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1988

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Phenolsulfonphthalein
Impurities
Competitive Binding
MCF-7 Cells
Coloring Agents
Tissue culture
High performance liquid chromatography
Progesterone Receptors
Growth
Estrogen Receptors
Ether
Culture Media
Salts
Sodium
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Breast Neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Lipophilic impurities, not phenolsulfonphthalein, account for the estrogenic activity in commercial preparations of phenol red. / Bindal, Rajeshwar D.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

In: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, Vol. 31, No. 3, 09.1988, p. 287-293.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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