Recommendations and interventions to promote reproducibility in science have so far largely been formulated in the context of well-established domains characterized by data- And computationally-intensive methods. However, much promising research occurs in little data domains that are emergent and experience data scarcity. This paper presents a longitudinal study of such a domain, deep subseafloor biosphere research. Two important challenges this domain faces in establishing itself are increasing production and circulation of data, and strengthening relationships between domain researchers. Some potential interventions to promote reproducibility may also help the domain to establish itself. However, other potential interventions could profoundly damage the domain’s long-term prospects of maturation by impeding production of new data and undermining critical relationships between researchers. This paper challenges the dominant framing of the pursuit of reproducible science as identifying, and overcoming, barriers to reproducibility. Instead, those interested in pursuing reproducibility in a domain should take into account multiple aspects of that domain’s epistemic culture to avoid negative unintended consequences. Further, pursuing reproducibility is premature for emergent, data-scarce domains: scarce resources should instead be invested to help these domains to mature, for instance by addressing data scarcity.