Biomass transportation is a key component of the biomass feedstock sustainable supply system, supporting the emerging bioenergy sector based on lignocellulosic feedstock. It provides the link between biomass feedstock producers and end-users such as biorefineries. However, transportation and associated logistics are also responsible for a major portion of the total feedstock supply cost and energy consumption. It is a highly complex system exhibiting "many-to-few" as well as "one-to-one" delivery logistics. The biomass form, intended end use, supply and demand locations and available equipment all affect the performance of the transportation logistics system. Sustainability of the supply system requires optimized logistic chains, cost-effective transportation alternatives, standardized facility design and equipment configurations, efficient regulations and a careful environmental impact analysis. These issues have been studied rigorously in the last decade. The objective of this paper is comprehensively analyze the existing literature which can then be used to conduct a systematic analysis and innovative design of transportation logistics systems. It analyzes major feedstock transportation alternatives and the implementation of those for various types of energy crops such as energy grasses and agricultural residue. The importance of equipment configuration, performance-based standards development and regulations is emphasized and the status quo reviewed. Finally, approaches described in the literature to model, simulate and optimize transportation systems are reviewed.