The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has partnered with research teams at the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) at the University of Illinois at Urbana– Champaign (UIUC), the University of California Pavement Research Center (UCPRC), and Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, in developing a tool to assess the environmental impacts and to predict the performance of preservation and rehabilitation treatments on flexible pavements. This tool can be used on a national scale. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) database has been developed to assess the environmental impacts of the materials and construction stages. The performance evaluation was conducted using both deterministic performance models and a qualitative decision matrix to determine the expected treatment life. The importance of this study lies in analyzing the capacity of the tool to help in the preservation and rehabilitation treatments selection, especially in-place recycling treatments, in terms of performance evaluation, and environmental assessment under a range of traffic, climate, structure capacity, and existing pavement conditions.