Lidar: Resonance

C. S. Gardner, R. L. Collins

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This article summarizes the principles and practices of the resonance lidar techniques used to measure constituents, temperatures, and winds in the middle and upper atmosphere (70-150 km). The lidar equation is presented with a resonance solution that highlights the robustness of the technique due to the complete quantum mechanical description of scattering by atoms and molecules. The technique is illustrated with contemporary examples of high-resolution (100 m, 1 min) measurements of mesospheric metals, temperatures, and winds. These measurements allow estimation of the constituent, heat, and momentum fluxes that are crucial for understanding nonlinear coupling and transport.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9780123822260
ISBN (Print)9780123822253
StatePublished - 2015


  • Concentration
  • Fluorescence
  • Fluxes
  • Lidar
  • Meteoric metals
  • Middle atmosphere
  • Remote sensing
  • Resonance
  • Temperature
  • Wind

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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