Persistent fumigant residues in soil resulting from agricultural pest-control practices may be released into water and leached to groundwater. In this study, the leaching potential of persistent soil fumigant residues was evaluated, and the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) amendment was investigated. A silt loam soil was incubated separately with the fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), chloropicrin (CP), and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) at 240-990 mg kg-1 for 35 d, followed by 48 h of evaporation. The soil was packed into stainless steel columns (1.4 cm × 10 cm) and leached with water, 5 mM ATS, and DOM solution (DOC 250 mg L-1) by gravity. Residues of 1,3-D, CP, and MITC in the evaporated soil were 5.61, 11.38, and 1.83 mg kg-1, respectively. Concentrations of 1,3-D, CP, and MITC in column effluents ranged from 0.05 to 0.73, 0.16 to 0.81, and 0.05 to 0.27 mg L-1, respectively, when the soil was leached with 10 pore volumes of water. DOM did not promote the leaching of persistent fumigant residues, and ATS remarkably reduced the amount of 1,3-D and CP yet notably increased MITC recovered in the effluents. The results suggest that the leaching of persistent fumigant residues through soil to water is significant, and movement of fumigants in soil is not facilitated by DOM. Amending soil with ATS through irrigation is an effective method to remove persistent residues of halogenated fumigants. To reduce groundwater pollution risks posed by fumigation, persistent soil fumigant residues have to be considered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry