Layout optimization of ESD protection diodes for high-frequency I/Os

Karan Bhatia, Nathan Jack, Elyse Rosenbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Layout options for CMOS ESD diodes' p-n junction geometry and metal routing are investigated in this paper. Experiments are performed using 90- and 180-nm technologies. Using the figures of merit $I-{\rm CP}/C$ and $R-{\rm ON} \ast C$, it is shown that twin-well stripe diodes with nonminimum diffusion width and high-level broadside routing are optimum for gigahertz-frequency I/Os. In addition, the suitability of ESD diodes formed with the isolated P-well/deep N-well diffusions available in triple-well technologies is evaluated for high-speed I/O applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5153318
Pages (from-to)465-475
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2009


  • CMOS integrated circuits
  • Diodes
  • Electrostatic discharges
  • Metallization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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