Latino Men Using Compañerismo to Navigate the Unchartered Waters of the Doctoral Program: A Conceptual Model

Osly J. Flores, Oscar E. Patrón

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we present a conceptual model of the development of a relationship between first-generation Latino men while navigating the unchartered waters, or the unknown, of a doctoral program. Drawing from focus groups, we outline the various components (e.g., institutional role and support, resilience, cultural affinity) that contributed to the model of compañerismo and how this cultural phenomenon, in turn, led to the participants’ successful navigation of their graduate education. Compañerismo represents the evolvement from a surface-level friendship to a cultural, personal, and academic support system. Guided by the data, we offer practical implications for higher education stakeholders to better support Latino men and their persistence and retention in doctoral programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)427-451
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Latino men
  • doctoral program
  • friendship
  • higher education
  • peer networks
  • student success

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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