The extensive use of high-concentration copper (Cu) in feed additives, fertilizers, pesticides, and nanoparticles (NPs) inevitably causes significant pollution in the ecological environment. This type of chain pollution begins with animal husbandry: first, Cu accumulation in animals poisons them; second, high Cu enters the soil and water sources with the feces and urine to cause toxicity, which may further lead to crop and plant pollution; third, this process ultimately endangers human health through consumption of livestock products, aquatic foods, plants, and even drinking water. High Cu potentially alters the antibiotic resistance of soil and water sources and further aggravates human disease risks. Thus, it is necessary to formulate reasonable Cu emission regulations because the benefits of Cu for livestock and plants cannot be ignored. The present review evaluates the potential hazards and benefits of high Cu in livestock, the environment, the plant industry, and human health. We also discuss aspects related to bacterial and fungal resistance and homeostasis and perspectives on the application of Cu-NPs and microbial high-Cu removal technology to reduce the spread of toxicity risks to humans.
- antibiotic resistance
- microbial homeostasis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)