Larval environmental stress alters Aedes aegypti competence for Sindbis virus

Ephantus J. Muturi, Chang Hyun Kim, Barry W. Alto, May R. Berenbaum, Mary A. Schuler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective To evaluate how stress at the larval stage alters adult mosquito performance and susceptibility to viral infection. Methods We used a model system consisting of Sindbis virus (SINV) and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Larvae were either reared under optimal conditions (control) or exposed to one of four types of stressors; suboptimal nutrients, starvation, elevated temperature, and a low dose of the insecticide malathion and adult females were fed SINV infectious blood meal. Differential expressions of stress, immune-specific and detoxification genes was measured in fourth instar larvae (HSP70, HSP83, cecropin, defensin, transferrin and CYP6Z6) and 3-day-old females (cecropin, defensin, transferrin) to identify plausible molecular mechanisms associated with mosquito response to stress. Results There were stress-specific variations in mosquito performance (survival, development time, female size), but all stressors had a consistent effect of significantly increasing susceptibility to viral infection and dissemination relative to the controls. Three genes were up-regulated in fourth instar larvae exposed to temperature stress (cecropin, defensin and CYP6Z6) compared to single genes in suboptimal nutrient (cecropin) and malathion (transferrin) stress treatments and down-regulation of all the six genes in starvation treatments. In adult samples, transferrin was up-regulated in all but starvation treatments while defensin was up-regulated in starvation and temperature stress treatments. Conclusions Stress during larval development may cause alterations in adult mosquito phenotype and immunity that can increase their susceptibility to pathogens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)955-964
Number of pages10
JournalTropical Medicine and International Health
Volume16
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2011

Fingerprint

Sindbis Virus
Cecropins
Aedes
Defensins
Culicidae
Mental Competency
Transferrin
Starvation
Larva
Malathion
Virus Diseases
Genes
Temperature
Yellow Fever
Food
Insecticides
Meals
Immunity
Down-Regulation
Phenotype

Keywords

  • Aedes aegypti
  • Arbovirus
  • Environmental stress
  • Sindbis
  • Vector competence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Larval environmental stress alters Aedes aegypti competence for Sindbis virus. / Muturi, Ephantus J.; Kim, Chang Hyun; Alto, Barry W.; Berenbaum, May R.; Schuler, Mary A.

In: Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 16, No. 8, 01.08.2011, p. 955-964.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{3f4e42c8a0a64163af15dc61e9757b92,
title = "Larval environmental stress alters Aedes aegypti competence for Sindbis virus",
abstract = "Objective To evaluate how stress at the larval stage alters adult mosquito performance and susceptibility to viral infection. Methods We used a model system consisting of Sindbis virus (SINV) and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Larvae were either reared under optimal conditions (control) or exposed to one of four types of stressors; suboptimal nutrients, starvation, elevated temperature, and a low dose of the insecticide malathion and adult females were fed SINV infectious blood meal. Differential expressions of stress, immune-specific and detoxification genes was measured in fourth instar larvae (HSP70, HSP83, cecropin, defensin, transferrin and CYP6Z6) and 3-day-old females (cecropin, defensin, transferrin) to identify plausible molecular mechanisms associated with mosquito response to stress. Results There were stress-specific variations in mosquito performance (survival, development time, female size), but all stressors had a consistent effect of significantly increasing susceptibility to viral infection and dissemination relative to the controls. Three genes were up-regulated in fourth instar larvae exposed to temperature stress (cecropin, defensin and CYP6Z6) compared to single genes in suboptimal nutrient (cecropin) and malathion (transferrin) stress treatments and down-regulation of all the six genes in starvation treatments. In adult samples, transferrin was up-regulated in all but starvation treatments while defensin was up-regulated in starvation and temperature stress treatments. Conclusions Stress during larval development may cause alterations in adult mosquito phenotype and immunity that can increase their susceptibility to pathogens.",
keywords = "Aedes aegypti, Arbovirus, Environmental stress, Sindbis, Vector competence",
author = "Muturi, {Ephantus J.} and Kim, {Chang Hyun} and Alto, {Barry W.} and Berenbaum, {May R.} and Schuler, {Mary A.}",
year = "2011",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02796.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "955--964",
journal = "Tropical Medicine and International Health",
issn = "1360-2276",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Larval environmental stress alters Aedes aegypti competence for Sindbis virus

AU - Muturi, Ephantus J.

AU - Kim, Chang Hyun

AU - Alto, Barry W.

AU - Berenbaum, May R.

AU - Schuler, Mary A.

PY - 2011/8/1

Y1 - 2011/8/1

N2 - Objective To evaluate how stress at the larval stage alters adult mosquito performance and susceptibility to viral infection. Methods We used a model system consisting of Sindbis virus (SINV) and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Larvae were either reared under optimal conditions (control) or exposed to one of four types of stressors; suboptimal nutrients, starvation, elevated temperature, and a low dose of the insecticide malathion and adult females were fed SINV infectious blood meal. Differential expressions of stress, immune-specific and detoxification genes was measured in fourth instar larvae (HSP70, HSP83, cecropin, defensin, transferrin and CYP6Z6) and 3-day-old females (cecropin, defensin, transferrin) to identify plausible molecular mechanisms associated with mosquito response to stress. Results There were stress-specific variations in mosquito performance (survival, development time, female size), but all stressors had a consistent effect of significantly increasing susceptibility to viral infection and dissemination relative to the controls. Three genes were up-regulated in fourth instar larvae exposed to temperature stress (cecropin, defensin and CYP6Z6) compared to single genes in suboptimal nutrient (cecropin) and malathion (transferrin) stress treatments and down-regulation of all the six genes in starvation treatments. In adult samples, transferrin was up-regulated in all but starvation treatments while defensin was up-regulated in starvation and temperature stress treatments. Conclusions Stress during larval development may cause alterations in adult mosquito phenotype and immunity that can increase their susceptibility to pathogens.

AB - Objective To evaluate how stress at the larval stage alters adult mosquito performance and susceptibility to viral infection. Methods We used a model system consisting of Sindbis virus (SINV) and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Larvae were either reared under optimal conditions (control) or exposed to one of four types of stressors; suboptimal nutrients, starvation, elevated temperature, and a low dose of the insecticide malathion and adult females were fed SINV infectious blood meal. Differential expressions of stress, immune-specific and detoxification genes was measured in fourth instar larvae (HSP70, HSP83, cecropin, defensin, transferrin and CYP6Z6) and 3-day-old females (cecropin, defensin, transferrin) to identify plausible molecular mechanisms associated with mosquito response to stress. Results There were stress-specific variations in mosquito performance (survival, development time, female size), but all stressors had a consistent effect of significantly increasing susceptibility to viral infection and dissemination relative to the controls. Three genes were up-regulated in fourth instar larvae exposed to temperature stress (cecropin, defensin and CYP6Z6) compared to single genes in suboptimal nutrient (cecropin) and malathion (transferrin) stress treatments and down-regulation of all the six genes in starvation treatments. In adult samples, transferrin was up-regulated in all but starvation treatments while defensin was up-regulated in starvation and temperature stress treatments. Conclusions Stress during larval development may cause alterations in adult mosquito phenotype and immunity that can increase their susceptibility to pathogens.

KW - Aedes aegypti

KW - Arbovirus

KW - Environmental stress

KW - Sindbis

KW - Vector competence

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79960263368&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79960263368&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02796.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02796.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 21564427

AN - SCOPUS:79960263368

VL - 16

SP - 955

EP - 964

JO - Tropical Medicine and International Health

JF - Tropical Medicine and International Health

SN - 1360-2276

IS - 8

ER -