Skin-interfaced medical devices are critically important for diagnosing disease, monitoring physiological health and establishing control interfaces with prosthetics, computer systems and wearable robotic devices. Skin-like epidermal electronic technologies can support these use cases in soft and ultrathin materials that conformally interface with the skin in a manner that is mechanically and thermally imperceptible. Nevertheless, schemes so far have limited the overall sizes of these devices to less than a few square centimetres. Here, we present materials, device structures, handling and mounting methods, and manufacturing approaches that enable epidermal electronic interfaces that are orders of magnitude larger than previously realized. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate devices for electrophysiological recordings that enable coverage of the full scalp and the full circumference of the forearm. Filamentary conductive architectures in open-network designs minimize radio frequency-induced eddy currents, forming the basis for structural and functional compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging. We demonstrate the use of the large-area interfaces for the multifunctional control of a transhumeral prosthesis by patients who have undergone targeted muscle-reinnervation surgery, in long-term electroencephalography, and in simultaneous electroencephalography and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications