Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing

Debashis Chanda, Kazuki Shigeta, Sidhartha Gupta, Tyler Cain, Andrew Carlson, Agustin Mihi, Alfred J. Baca, Gregory R. Bogart, Paul Braun, John A. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) are engineered structures with optical properties that cannot be obtained in naturally occurring materials 1-3. Recent work has demonstrated that focused ion beam4 and layer-by-layer electron-beam lithography can be used to pattern the necessary nanoscale features over small areas (hundreds of μm2) for metamaterials with three-dimensional layouts and interesting characteristics, including negative-index behaviour in the optical regime. A key challenge is in the fabrication of such three-dimensional NIMs with sizes and at throughputs necessary for many realistic applications (including lenses, resonators and other photonic components 6-8). We report a simple printing approach capable of forming large-area, high-quality NIMs with three-dimensional, multilayer formats. Here, a silicon wafer with deep, nanoscale patterns of surface relief serves as a reusable stamp. Blanket deposition of alternating layers of silver and magnesium fluoride onto such a stamp represents a process for inking it with thick, multilayer assemblies. Transfer printing this ink material onto rigid or flexible substrates completes the fabrication in a high-throughput manner. Experimental measurements and simulation results show that macroscale, three-dimensional NIMs (>75 cm 2) nano-manufactured in this way exhibit a strong, negative index of refraction in the near-infrared spectral range, with excellent figures of merit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)402-407
Number of pages6
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Volume6
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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