Batch experiments were performed to study the kinetics of bromochloramine formation and decomposition from the reaction of monochloramine and bromide ion. The effects of pH, initial monochloramine and bromide ion concentrations, phosphate buffer concentration, and excess ammonia were evaluated. Results showed that the monochloramine decay rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing bromide ion concentration, and the concentration of bromochloramine increased to a maximum before decreasing gradually. The maximum bromochloramine concentration reached was found to decrease with increasing phosphate and ammonia concentrations. Previous models in the literature were not able to capture the decay of bromochloramine, and therefore we proposed an extended model consisting of reactions for monochloramine autodecomposition, the decay of bromamines in the presence of bromide, bromochloramine formation, and bromochloramine decomposition. Reaction rate constants were obtained through least-squares fitting to 11 data sets representing the effect of pH, bromide, monochloramine, phosphate, and excess ammonia. The reaction rate constants were then used to predict monochloramine and bromochloramine concentration profiles for all experimental conditions tested. In general, the modeled lines were found to provide good agreement with the experimental data under most conditions tested, with deviations occurring at low pH and high bromide concentrations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry