Key Aspects of Donkey and Mule Reproduction

Igor Federico Canisso, Duccio Panzani, Jordi Miró, Robyn E. Ellerbrock

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Donkeys are nonseasonal, polyestrous, territorial, and nonharem breeders. Although there are many similarities between horses and donkeys, there are also reproductive features that differ, from the longer cervix in the jenny to spermatogenic efficiency in the jack. Mules display reproductive cyclic activity but are rarely fertile. Frozen donkey semen has high pregnancy rates in mares, but lower rates in jennies. This article reviews key aspects of donkey and mule reproductive physiology, reproductive medicine, and assisted reproductive techniques that are useful for practitioners offering assisted reproductive techniques, and also for practitioners with the occasional client with a basic reproductive question.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)607-642
Number of pages36
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 2019


  • Asinine
  • Assisted reproductive techniques
  • Equid reproduction
  • Equus asinus
  • Equus mulus
  • Mules
  • Reproductive pathology
  • Reproductive physiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Equine


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