Kalman Filter and Its Modern Extensions for the Continuous-Time Nonlinear Filtering Problem

Amirhossein Taghvaei, Jana De Wiljes, Prashant G. Mehta, Sebastian Reich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper is concerned with the filtering problem in continuous time. Three algorithmic solution approaches for this problem are reviewed: (i) the classical Kalman-Bucy filter, which provides an exact solution for the linear Gaussian problem; (ii) the ensemble Kalman-Bucy filter (EnKBF), which is an approximate filter and represents an extension of the Kalman-Bucy filter to nonlinear problems; and (iii) the feedback particle filter (FPF), which represents an extension of the EnKBF and furthermore provides for a consistent solution in the general nonlinear, non-Gaussian case. The common feature of the three algorithms is the gain times error formula to implement the update step (to account for conditioning due to the observations) in the filter. In contrast to the commonly used sequential Monte Carlo methods, the EnKBF and FPF avoid the resampling of the particles in the importance sampling update step. Moreover, the feedback control structure provides for error correction potentially leading to smaller simulation variance and improved stability properties. The paper also discusses the issue of nonuniqueness of the filter update formula and formulates a novel approximation algorithm based on ideas from optimal transport and coupling of measures. Performance of this and other algorithms is illustrated for a numerical example.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number030904
JournalJournal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Transactions of the ASME
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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