Isolating antigenotoxic components and cancer cell growth suppressors from agricultural by-products

Michael J. Plewa, Mark A. Berhow, Steven F. Vaughn, Emilie J. Woods, Mark Rundell, Kristen Naschansky, Susan Bartolini, Elizabeth D. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Commercial processing wastes or by-products of crops were found to be sources of antimutagens and human tumor cell growth suppressors. We developed a microplate method to measure genomic DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a modified single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. This allowed us to measure the repression of 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2AAAF)-induced DNA damage by very small amounts of complex mixtures, fractions or individual chemicals isolated from agricultural by-products. We previously demonstrated that PCC, an ethanol extract of a commercial soybean processing by-product, repressed induced genomic DNA damage in mammalian cells. PCC was separated into a series of chemically defined fractions and two fractions (PCC70 and PCC100) repressed mutagen-induced damage. Of the isoflavones isolated from soybean fraction PCC70, daidzein expressed antigenotoxic activity, however, genistin and genistein enhanced DNA damage. An antigenotoxic response also was observed with a fraction isolated from corn distillate solids (CDS40). We developed a microplate assay to measure the suppression of the growth rate of human cancer cells in which the cytostatic/cytotoxic status at each concentration of the test sample was quantitatively determined. Genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin isolated from soybean fraction PCC70 expressed a wide range of growth suppression of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The biological assays were integrated with, and directed, the separation and analytical chemistry component of this project. Compounds were purified from biologically active fractions and the structure of individual chemicals was determined with analytical HPLC and LC-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). This research may lead to the isolation of novel chemoprotectants from agronomic commercial processing products and by-products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-120
Number of pages12
JournalMutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
StatePublished - Sep 1 2001


  • Chemoprotectant
  • Comet assay
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • Phytochemical
  • Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)
  • Soybean

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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