Isokinetic training increases ulnar bending stiffness and bone mineral in young women

Larry E. Miller, David F. Wootten, Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, Warren K. Ramp, Charles R. Steele, John R. Cotton, James P. Carneal, William G. Herbert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Numerous studies have investigated the effects of physical activity on bone health; however, little is known about the effects of isokinetic strength training on bone. While bone mineral density (BMD) is widely used to assess bone health and fracture risk, there are several limitations of this measure that warrant new technology development to measure bone strength. The mechanical response tissue analyzer (MRTA) assesses bone strength by measuring maximal bending stiffness (EI). We hypothesized that isokinetic strength training of the elbow flexors and extensors would increase ulnar EI, BMD, and bone mineral content (BMC) in young women. Fifty-four women trained the nondominant arm 3 times per week for 20 weeks; 32 trained concentrically (CON) and 22 trained eccentrically (ECC). Subjects were assessed for the following variables pre- and post-training: CON and ECC peak torque of the elbow flexors and extensors with isokinetic dynamometry, ulnar mineral content and density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ulnar EI using MRTA. Isokinetic training increased CON (17%) and ECC (17%) peak torque, even when controlling for changes in the untrained arm. Eccentric training increased CON and ECC peak torque while CON training improved CON peak torque only. Isokinetic training increased ulnar EI 28%, which was statistically greater than the untrained arm. Ulnar EI increased 25% with CON training and 32% with ECC training. Both training modes resulted in greater EI gains compared to the untrained limb. Isokinetic training increased ulnar BMC (2.7%) and BMD (2.3%), even when controlling for untrained ulna changes. Both training modalities resulted in BMC and BMD increases; however, only CON training yielded gains when controlling for changes in the untrained limb. In conclusion, isokinetic strength training increases ulnar EI, BMC, and BMD in young women; no statistical differences were noted between CON and ECC training modes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)685-689
Number of pages5
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Bone densitometry
  • Bone mineral
  • Mechanical response tissue analyzer
  • Muscular strength
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Histology


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