Is promoting public transit an effective intervention for obesity?

A longitudinal study of the relation between public transit usage and obesity

Zhaowei She, Douglas M. King, Sheldon Howard Jacobson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

There is increasing evidence on the association between public transit usage and obesity. To further understand the causal impact of changes in county public transit usage on county obesity rates, this paper presents a longitudinal study on this topic. Annual health data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and transportation data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were aggregated and matched at the county level, to create a panel data set with 227 counties from 45 states across two time periods, 2001 and 2009. Annual public transit funding, obtained from the National Transit Database (NTD), is chosen as an instrumental variable to simulate changes in public transit usage caused by exogenous changes in public policies. Possible confounding variables such as amount of leisure time physical activity, health care coverage and distribution of income are explicitly controlled. All time-invariant county level heterogeneities are implicitly controlled using first difference estimators. This study shows that promoting public transit in a county can effectively decrease the county obesity rate. Specifically, a one percentage point increase of frequent public transit riders in a county population is estimated to decrease the county population obesity rate by 0.473% points. This result supports findings in previous research that the extra amount of physical activity involved in public transit usage can have a statistically significant impact on obesity. In addition, this study also provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of encouraging public transit usage as a public health intervention for obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)162-169
Number of pages8
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Volume119
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Public relations
Public health
Health care
longitudinal study
Health
leisure time
evidence
surveillance
public policy
public health
coverage
funding
travel
health care
income
health
Public transit
Obesity
Longitudinal study
time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Management Science and Operations Research

Cite this

@article{8a4f6f97309f41eca90cc717210286b9,
title = "Is promoting public transit an effective intervention for obesity?: A longitudinal study of the relation between public transit usage and obesity",
abstract = "There is increasing evidence on the association between public transit usage and obesity. To further understand the causal impact of changes in county public transit usage on county obesity rates, this paper presents a longitudinal study on this topic. Annual health data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and transportation data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were aggregated and matched at the county level, to create a panel data set with 227 counties from 45 states across two time periods, 2001 and 2009. Annual public transit funding, obtained from the National Transit Database (NTD), is chosen as an instrumental variable to simulate changes in public transit usage caused by exogenous changes in public policies. Possible confounding variables such as amount of leisure time physical activity, health care coverage and distribution of income are explicitly controlled. All time-invariant county level heterogeneities are implicitly controlled using first difference estimators. This study shows that promoting public transit in a county can effectively decrease the county obesity rate. Specifically, a one percentage point increase of frequent public transit riders in a county population is estimated to decrease the county population obesity rate by 0.473{\%} points. This result supports findings in previous research that the extra amount of physical activity involved in public transit usage can have a statistically significant impact on obesity. In addition, this study also provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of encouraging public transit usage as a public health intervention for obesity.",
author = "Zhaowei She and King, {Douglas M.} and Jacobson, {Sheldon Howard}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.tra.2018.10.027",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "119",
pages = "162--169",
journal = "Transportation Research, Part A: Policy and Practice",
issn = "0965-8564",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Is promoting public transit an effective intervention for obesity?

T2 - A longitudinal study of the relation between public transit usage and obesity

AU - She, Zhaowei

AU - King, Douglas M.

AU - Jacobson, Sheldon Howard

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - There is increasing evidence on the association between public transit usage and obesity. To further understand the causal impact of changes in county public transit usage on county obesity rates, this paper presents a longitudinal study on this topic. Annual health data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and transportation data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were aggregated and matched at the county level, to create a panel data set with 227 counties from 45 states across two time periods, 2001 and 2009. Annual public transit funding, obtained from the National Transit Database (NTD), is chosen as an instrumental variable to simulate changes in public transit usage caused by exogenous changes in public policies. Possible confounding variables such as amount of leisure time physical activity, health care coverage and distribution of income are explicitly controlled. All time-invariant county level heterogeneities are implicitly controlled using first difference estimators. This study shows that promoting public transit in a county can effectively decrease the county obesity rate. Specifically, a one percentage point increase of frequent public transit riders in a county population is estimated to decrease the county population obesity rate by 0.473% points. This result supports findings in previous research that the extra amount of physical activity involved in public transit usage can have a statistically significant impact on obesity. In addition, this study also provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of encouraging public transit usage as a public health intervention for obesity.

AB - There is increasing evidence on the association between public transit usage and obesity. To further understand the causal impact of changes in county public transit usage on county obesity rates, this paper presents a longitudinal study on this topic. Annual health data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and transportation data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were aggregated and matched at the county level, to create a panel data set with 227 counties from 45 states across two time periods, 2001 and 2009. Annual public transit funding, obtained from the National Transit Database (NTD), is chosen as an instrumental variable to simulate changes in public transit usage caused by exogenous changes in public policies. Possible confounding variables such as amount of leisure time physical activity, health care coverage and distribution of income are explicitly controlled. All time-invariant county level heterogeneities are implicitly controlled using first difference estimators. This study shows that promoting public transit in a county can effectively decrease the county obesity rate. Specifically, a one percentage point increase of frequent public transit riders in a county population is estimated to decrease the county population obesity rate by 0.473% points. This result supports findings in previous research that the extra amount of physical activity involved in public transit usage can have a statistically significant impact on obesity. In addition, this study also provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of encouraging public transit usage as a public health intervention for obesity.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85056851057&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85056851057&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.tra.2018.10.027

DO - 10.1016/j.tra.2018.10.027

M3 - Article

VL - 119

SP - 162

EP - 169

JO - Transportation Research, Part A: Policy and Practice

JF - Transportation Research, Part A: Policy and Practice

SN - 0965-8564

ER -