Investigation of strand surface defects using mould instrumentation and modelling

B. G. Thomas, M. S. Jenkins, R. B. Mahapatra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The surfaces of continuously cast steel blooms exhibit a variety of surface features and defects, which were investigated to reveal the interactions at the meniscus between the steel shell and interfacial flux layers that caused them. One such defect formed at periodic intervals along the surface of first and second blooms in a sequence. It was characterised by gradually deepening oscillation marks, followed immediately by longitudinal striations or 'glaciation marks'. In severe cases, deep depressions were clearly visible within the glaciated region. These defects were investigated through plant trials and both physical and mathematical modelling. The defects were found to exhibit a characteristic temperature history: temperature troughs that move down the mould at the casting speed. These defects may be monitored in much the same way as sticker breakouts, thereby allowing existing thermocouple based breakout detection systems to be modified to include a quality alarm. This study attributes these defects to high amplitude, low frequency, mould level fluctuations. A mechanism is proposed which ascribes the generation of these defects to the interaction of the meniscus with the slag rim at peaks in the mould level cycle. Installing an improved mould level control system eliminated the defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)485-494
Number of pages10
JournalIronmaking and Steelmaking
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2004


  • Billet casting
  • Casting defects
  • Continuous casting
  • Instrumentation
  • Modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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