Intraoperative fluorescence imaging (IFI) can improve real-time identification of cancer cells during an operation. Phase I clinical trials in thoracic surgery have demonstrated that IFI with second window indocyanine green (TumorGlow®) can identify subcentimeter pulmonary nodules, anterior mediastinal masses, and mesothelioma, while the use of a folate receptor-targeted near-infrared agent, OTL38, can improve the specificity for diagnosing tumors with folate receptor expression. Here, we review the existing preclinical and clinical data on IFI in thoracic surgery.
- indocyanine green (ICG)
- intraoperative fluorescence imaging (IFI)
- near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging
- thoracic surgery
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