Intralipid Emulsion Therapy for the Treatment of Suspected Toxicity in 2 Avian Species

Lauren K. Schmidt, Krista A. Keller, Caroline Tonozzi, Joaõ Brandaõ, Jane Christman, Adam W. Stern, Ashley E. Allen-Durrance, Amy B. Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy has shown promise as a treatment option for a variety of lipophilic toxins. Two birds presented for suspected ingestion of a toxic substance. A blue-and-gold macaw (Ara ararauna) presented after chewing a block of bromethalin rodenticide without overt clinical signs at the time of presentation. Additionally, a free-ranging bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found weak and depressed near a municipal landfill after presumptive ingestion of pentobarbital. Both birds were treated with ILE therapy for potential intoxication without any adverse events. The macaw was clinically normal after 3 days of hospitalization and at a 1-week reevaluation. The eagle was transferred to a rehabilitation center after markedly improved mentation and strength and was released 7 days later. Clinicians should consider ILE therapy for the treatment of lipophilic toxicities; however, monitoring is recommended for persistent lipemia and other adverse effects that have been reported in the veterinary literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)394-399
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of avian medicine and surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 13 2023


  • Ara ararauna
  • Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  • avian
  • bald eagle
  • blue-and-gold macaw
  • bromethalin
  • intralipid
  • pentobarbital

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


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