Interrater Reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test in the Virtual Reality-Based Simulator-2

Deepan C. Kamaraj, Brad E. Dicianno, Harshal P. Mahajan, Alhaji M. Buhari, Rory A. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To assess interrater reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test (PMRT) when administered through the Virtual Reality-based SIMulator-version 2 (VRSIM-2). Design: Within-subjects repeated-measures design. Setting: Participants interacted with VRSIM-2 through 2 display options (desktop monitor vs immersive virtual reality screens) using 2 control interfaces (roller system vs conventional movement-sensing joystick), providing 4 different driving scenarios (driving conditions 1-4). Participants: performed 3 virtual driving sessions for each of the 2 display screens and 1 session through a real-world driving course (driving condition 5). The virtual PMRT was conducted in a simulated indoor office space, and an equivalent course was charted in an open space for the real-world assessment. After every change in driving condition, participants completed a self-reported workload assessment questionnaire, the Task Load Index, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Participants: A convenience sample of electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) athletes (N=21) recruited at the 31st National Veterans Wheelchair Games. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Total composite PMRT score. Results: The PMRT had high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]>.75) between the 2 raters in all 5 driving conditions. Post hoc analyses revealed that the reliability analyses had >80% power to detect high ICCs in driving conditions 1 and 4. Conclusions: The PMRT has high interrater reliability in conditions 1 and 4 and could be used to assess EPW driving performance virtually in VRSIM-2. However, further psychometric assessment is necessary to assess the feasibility of administering the PMRT using the different interfaces of VRSIM-2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1078-1084
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Durable medical equipment
  • Neurological rehabilitation
  • Process assessment (health care)
  • Rehabilitation
  • Reproducibility of results
  • Simulation training
  • Virtual reality exposure therapy
  • Wheelchairs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Interrater Reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test in the Virtual Reality-Based Simulator-2'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this