Interplay between interferon-mediated innate immunity and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

Yan Sun, Mingyuan Han, Chiyong Kim, Jay G. Calvert, Dongwan Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and in turn, viruses have evolved to evade host immune surveillance. As a result, viruses may persist in host and develop chronic infections. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are among the most potent antiviral cytokines triggered by viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of pigs that is characterized by negligible induction of type I IFNs and viral persistence for an extended period. For IFN production, RIG-I/MDA5 and JAK-STAT pathways are two major signaling pathways, and recent studies indicate that PRRS virus is armed to modulate type I IFN responses during infection. This review describes the viral strategies for modulation of type I IFN responses. At least three non-structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11) and a structural protein (N nucleocapsid protein) have been identified and characterized to play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-κB pathways. Nsp's are early proteins while N is a late protein, suggesting that additional signaling pathways may be involved in addition to the IFN pathway. The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)424-446
Number of pages23
JournalViruses
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2012

Keywords

  • Arterivirus
  • Interferon
  • JAK-STAT
  • MDA5
  • NF-κB
  • Non-structural proteins
  • Nsp
  • Nucleocapsid
  • PRRS
  • PRRSV
  • RIG-I

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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