International Mixed Reality Immersive Experience: Approach via Surgical Grand Rounds

Arushi P. Mahajan, Donovan A. Inniss, Michelle D. Benedict, Alexander A. Dennis, Taylor Kantor, Arash Salavitabar, Candice Stegink, Jeremy Nelson, James Kinross, Mark S. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 created unintended but significant experiential barriers for surgical learners to interact at the bedside for teaching/case presentations. We hypothesized that an international grand rounds using the Microsoft HoloLens 2 extended reality (XR) headset would create an improved bedside-learning experience compared to traditional grand rounds formats. STUDY DESIGN: From December 2020 to March 2021, the world's first 2 international mixed reality grand rounds events using the HoloLens 2 headset were held, broadcasting transatlantically (between the University of Michigan and the Imperial College of London) bedside rounding experiences on 5 complex surgical patients to an international audience of 325 faculty, residents, and medical trainees. Participants completed pre- and post-event surveys to assess their experience. RESULTS: Of the 325 participants, 267 (80%) completed pre-surveys, and 95 (29%) completed both the pre- and post-surveys. Respondents (average age, 38 y; 44% women, 56% men; 211 US, 56 UK) included 92 (34%) medical students and residents and 175 faculty and staff. In the pre-event survey, 76% had little or no earlier experience with XR devices, and 94% thought implementation of XR into medical curricula was valuable. In the post-survey, 96% thought telerounding using XR technology was important for the current era, and 99% thought the ability to visualize the examination, imaging, and laboratory results at bedside via XR rounding was highly valuable and that this format was superior to traditional grand rounds. CONCLUSIONS: Almost all of the participants in the mixed reality international grand rounds felt the immersive XR experiences - allowing visualization of clinical findings, imaging, and laboratory results at the patient's bedside - were superior to a traditional grand rounds format, and that it could be a valuable tool for surgical teaching and telerounding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-31
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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