International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND): Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Minipig

Mikala Skydsgaard, Zuhal Dincer, Wanda M. Haschek, Kris Helke, Binod Jacob, Bjoern Jacobsen, Gitte Jeppesen, Atsuhiko Kato, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Sean McKeag, Keith Nelson, Susanne Rittinghausen, Dirk Schaudien, Vimala Vemireddi, Zbigniew W. Wojcinski

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions) Project ( is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in most tissues and organs from the minipig used in nonclinical safety studies. Some of the lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet ( Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for lesions in laboratory animals will provide a common language among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110-228
Number of pages119
JournalToxicologic Pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • background findings
  • minipig
  • nomenclature
  • pathology
  • toxicopathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Toxicology
  • Cell Biology


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