Interfacial segregation of Bi during current stressing of Sn-Bi/Cu solder interconnect

Q. L. Yang, J. K. Shang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Effect of electromigration on the interfacial structure of solder interconnects was examined in a Sn-Bi/Cu interconnect system. At current densities above 102 A/cm2, Bi migrated along the direction of the electron flow in the solder alloy. A continuous Bi layer was found at the solder interface on the anode side, while a Sn-rich region formed at the cathode side of the electrical connection. The presence of the Bi layer inhibited further growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic phase at the interface by acting as a diffusion barrier to the reacting species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1363-1367
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2005


  • Electromigration
  • Interconnect
  • Interface
  • Solder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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