Interfacial reactions between In-Sn solder and Ni-Fe platings

John P. Daghfal, P. J. Shang, Z. Q. Liu, J. K. Shang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Interfacial interactions in a Ni-xFe-Sn-In eutectic solder (x = 30 at.%, 55 at.%) have been examined. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM) were utilized to investigate the structure, composition, and morphology of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs). Upon reflow, Ni 3Sn 4 and FeSn 2 phases appeared at the interface along with Cu 6Sn 5 in the solder. Annealing experiments revealed the formation of a bilayer IMC that was Fe-rich adjacent to the Ni-Fe metallization and Ni-rich on the solder side. Kinetic studies established the apparent activation energies for both systems to be 51.8 kJ/mol and 85.1 kJ/mol, for 30 at.% and 55 at.% Fe contents, respectively. In the Fe-rich system, globular Ni 3Sn 4 crystals were formed upon reflow, but were changed into a cubic/faceted structure after annealing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2506-2515
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Faceting
  • FeSn
  • In-Sn solder
  • Interface
  • Ni Sn
  • Ni-Fe metallization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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